Insomnia Therapy .. part 1 (relaxation therapy)

Sleep is a part of human life has its share of many, on average almost a quarter to a third of the time used for sleeping. Sleep is a necessity rather than a resting state that is not useful. Sleep is needed by the human process for the formation of cells of a new body, repair body cells are damaged (natural healing mechanism), giving time for the rest of the body organs, as well as to maintain the balance of metabolism and biochemistry of the body. In addition to sleep for humans can control the rhythm of daily life.One of the most important function of sleep is to allow the nervous system to recover after being used for one day. In The World Book Encyclopedia, it is said to restore energy to the body's sleep, especially to the brain and nervous system (Mass., 2002) Some studies written in site. mentions that the Indonesian people slept an average of 22.00 and 05.00 the next day wake up.

Research on groups of young children in Denpasar shown 30-40% of their activity to sleep. Research is being conducted by Liu (2000) in Japan is mentioned 29% of respondents slept less than 6 hours, 23% felt the lack of hours sleep 6% use sleeping pills, 21% had a prevalence of insomnia and 15% had severe drowsiness condition in the afternoon. Everyone basically had experienced insomnia, A survey conducted by the National Institute of Health in the United states that in 1970, the total population who experience insomnia 17% of the population, a higher percentage of insomnia experienced by older people, where one of four at age 60 years experienced difficulty sleeping serious (Chopra, 1994). epidemiological survey conducted by Melinger (Morin, 1992. Lacks, 1992) showed that 35% of the population indicated experiencing insomnia during the past year and 10% experience insomnia disorder last six months. The survey also concluded that women, older people and those with low socioeconomic tidur.Kurang more experienced sleep disturbances may be harmful to ourselves and others. Someone that lack of sleep and then driving your own car is often a fatal accident. Lack of sleep can also cause problems in family and marriage, lack of sleep can make people irritable and more difficult to get along with (Parmet, 2003). When you sleep less soundly, then we will feel tired, weak and lethargic when awake. Losing hours of sleep even though few, have consequences which affect the morale, concentration ability, performance, productivity, communication skills, and general health, including the gastrointestinal system, kardiofaskuler function, and the immune system that does not sleep tubuh.Orang loss of energy and irritability , who two days without sleep will be difficult to concentrate for long periods. Many mistakes will be made, especially in routine tasks, and sometimes he could not concentrate.

People who do not sleep more than three days will be difficult to think, see, and hear clearly. Some people will experience a period of hallucinations, which they see things that are not there. The test results show after someone did not sleep for four days, he can only do a little routine tasks. Tasks that require attention or even a minimum of mental agility, it will become difficult to handle. After four and a half days there are symptoms of delirium and the world around him is very strange in his eyes.

Sleep is a biological phenomenon associated with the rhythm of the universe, circadian rhythms are cyclical 24-hour, sunrise and sunset, night and day, sleep is a human need to remove the regular and recurring physical exhaustion and mental fatigue (Panteri, 1993) . Man wearing a third time to sleep. Sleep is a normal behavior when individuals lose contact with their environment for awhile. At bedtime individual closes his eyes, pupil decreases, relaxes muscles, weakened heartbeat, blood pressure decreases and your metabolism slows down (Kedja, 1990). According Panteri (1993) neourofisiologi sleep, can be described as the stages of sleep with sleep poligrafi electroenchelograph , electrocardiograph, and electromiograph. At the time lying awake in a state still shown with beta brain waves which are characterized by rapid frequency of fifteen to twenty revolutions per second and low-voltage that is less than fifty microvolt. Furthermore, in the state who are tired and ready for sleep began to close my eyes, at this point that emerged from the brain wave frequency slows, voltage rises and becomes more regular.
These waves are called alpha waves which have eight to 12 rounds per second, which describes the state of relaxed, not tense but awake. After several minutes while breathing began to slow down the speed alpha. This is the beginning of the transition to sleep (not sleep) is characterized by theta waves of 50 to 100 microvolt, four to eight revolutions per second. In the beginning of this sleep state, heart rate slows down and becomes stable, breathing becomes shallow and irregular. This phase can last from ten seconds to 10 minutes and sometimes accompanied by visual images, called hallucinations hipnagogik, because skeletal muscles suddenly become weak and sometimes experience the sensation of falling, which causes us to wake up briefly with a jerk motion, this condition is called sleep stages pertama.Tidur second phase characterized by theta brain waves along with the emergence of a single wave with high amplitude and the appearance of sleep spidle (needle bed, because the paper looks at the monitor or recorder that shows the activity of the brain). At this stage movements and decreased muscle tension lasted about 10 to 20 minute mark the beginning of actual sleep. At this stage a person usually can not respond to stimuli from the outside, and the average person when awakened at this stage will feel really been tertidur.Tahap then after 20-30 minutes is entering the third stage, namely the combination of theta and delta (high voltage very low frequency).
Immediately after this third phase was followed by the disappearance of a fourth stage altogether and live theta waves are delta waves with a 0.5 to 2 revolutions per second, the amplitude of microvolt 100-200. In this delta sleep occurs entirely muscle relaxation, decreased blood pressure, pulse and respiration slowed. The blood supply to the brain is at minimal.Kondisi limit of normal sleep is not always perceived by the person who will enter sleep. Disorders and sleep difficulties are often disturbing, both when entering the first stage of sleep or when sleep lasts. This disruption can occur due to psychological or physical problems, which may cause difficulties for someone to enter the state of calm. State of excessive worry will cause the muscles can not relax and sleep terkendali.Gangguan not mind that often arise can be classified into four namely: (1) insomnia, disorders of sleep and maintain sleep signed, (2) hypersomnia, sleep disturbances or excessive drowsiness , (3) dysfunction somnabolisme conditions such as sleep, night terrors, and (4) rhythm sleep disorders.

Sleep Disorders Insomnia
Insomnia comes from the words in meaning and not meaning somnus sleep, so it means no sleep or insomnia sleep disorder. Further explained that there are three kinds of insomnia: First, Initial Insomnia sleep disorder means when entering sleep. Second, the Middle Insomnia is awakened in the middle of the night and it was difficult to sleep again. Third, Late Insomnia sleep disorder that is often experienced when I woke up in the morning (Hawari, 1990). The Diagnostic and Statistical of Mental Disorder IV (DSM-IV) defines primary insomnia disorder is the complaint of difficulty sleeping and initiate / maintain a state or sleep or sleep state that is not restorative at least one of the last month (Espie, 2002). According to Hoeve (1992), insomnia is a state can not sleep or disturbance in sleep patterns. Person concerned may not be able to sleep, it is difficult to fall asleep, or wake up easily and then can not sleep anymore. This happens not because people are too busy so it does not have a chance to sleep, but the consequences of mental disorders, especially depression, fatigue, and anxiety symptoms memuncak.Insomnia is the inability or difficulty to sleep. These sleep problems can be related to the period of time (quantity), or kelelapan (quality) sleep. Patients often complain of insomnia can not sleep, not enough sleep, sleep with a frightening dream, and felt their health distracted. Patients with insomnia can not sleep well even if given the chance to sleep as much as possible.
In normal circumstances, the examination of brain activity via electro-ensefalografi (EEG), sleep period occurs during the phases of sleep alternating between synchronous and asynchronous sleep. This turnover approximately every two hours. Synchronous phase of sleep characterized by deep sleep, the body in a state of calm. Asynchronous sleep phase is marked by anxiety and other physical reactions, such as the movements of the eyeball which is the dream phase. Normal person sleep disturbed in phase asynchronous will feel annoyed, discontented, and become depressed (schenck et al., 2003). Insomnia sufferers experience an interruption in the transition and the quality of the phases of sleep, especially in the asynchronous phase. From the research it turns out that when a patient is considered as awake at night is actually a dream phases. Conversely, some brief period of sleep which is actually a real sleep Insomnia is classified into three types. The first type is the patient who can not or have difficulty sleeping during the first 1 to 3 hours. However, because of exhaustion finally fell asleep, too. This type is usually experienced by young patients who are experiencing anxiety. The second type, can sleep easily and soundly, but after two to three hours of sleep waking. This event can occur repeatedly. The third type, the patient can sleep easily and soundly, but in the early morning he woke up and could not sleep anymore. This is usually experienced by people who are experiencing depression. Insomnia is a sleep disorder experienced by patients with symptoms always feel exhausted and tired all day and is continuously (more than ten days), having difficulty sleeping or always woke in the middle of the night and can not go back to sleep. Often the patient woke up earlier than wanted and can not go back to sleep. There are three types of insomnia disorders, namely: disturbed sleep (sleep onset insomnia), always wake up in the middle of the night (sleep maintenance insomnia), and was always up much faster than the desired (early insomnia Awakening). Quite a lot of people who experience one of these three types of sleep disorders (Liu et al., 1999).

Insomnia Causes
Insomnia may be caused by various factors, such as hormones, drugs, and psychosis, may also be due to external factors such as inner pressure, the atmosphere of the bedroom that is not comfortable, quiet or change the time because they have to work tonight. Besides coffee and tea that contain central nervous system stimulants, tobacco contains nicotine, a drug containing amphetamine board agencies, are examples of substances that may cause difficulty sleeping. Many experts said that sleep disturbances are not directly related to declining hormone, but the psychological conditions and increased anxiety, agitation, and the emotions that are often uncontrollable deterioration of the hormone estrogen, could be one reason for the increased risk of disruption tidur.Morin (Espie, 2002) mentions The main cause of insomnia is the presence of emotional problems, cognitive and physiological. All three play a role against the occurrence of cognitive dysfunction, unhealthy habits, and consequences of insomnia.

Relaxation Therapy to Reduce Insomnia Disorders ...
One way to overcome insomnia is the relaxation method (Woolfolk et al. 1983). Relaxation is one technique in which behavior therapy was first introduced by Jacobson, a psychologist from Chicago who developed the physiological method against stress and anxiety. This technique is called progressive relaxation techniques to reduce muscle tension (Levy et al., 1984). Jacobson believes that all forms of tension, including mental tension is based on muscle contraction (Sheridan and Radmacher, 1992). If someone can be taught to relax their muscles, they are completely relaxed. Relaxation exercises can be used to enter the sleep state because of the deliberately relax their muscles will form a calm and relaxed atmosphere. The atmosphere is necessary to achieve an alpha wave state that is a situation that required someone to enter the initial phase of sleep. Basic relaxation theory is as follows: on the human nervous system and central nervous system are the autonomic nervous system. Central nervous system function is to control the desired movements, such as hand movements, leg, neck, fingers, and so forth. Functioning of the autonomic nervous system controls automatic movements, such as digestive functions, cardiovascular processes, of sexual desire, and so forth. Autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous systems that work opposite each other. Sympathetic nervous system stimulation or drive to work to improve the organs of the body, stimulate increased heart rate and breathing, lowered skin temperature and skin conductivity, and will hamper the digestive process and sexual. Parasympathetic nervous system stimulates the decline in all functions is increased by the sympathetic nervous system. During the systems normal befungsi in balance, increasing the system akfivitas one will obstruct or increase the effects of other systems. At the time of tension and anxiety experienced individuals that work is the sympathetic nervous system, whereas the relaxation time that works is the parasympathetic nervous system, thus can reduce the sense of relaxation of tension and anxiety in a way resiprok, which raised the counter conditioning and removal (Prawitasari, 1988) . If the individual to relax when he experienced tension or anxiety, then the physiological reactions of individuals perceived to be reduced, so it will feel relaxed. When his physical condition has been relaxed, the psychological condition is also quiet (Lichstein, et al. 1993). Relaxation techniques have long known and widely used in various therapies either physical or psychological problems of therapy. There are several types of relaxation that has been known to include progressive relaxation, differential relaxation and relaxation via letting go.